|Classification:||Flerovium is an ‘other metal’ (presumed)|
|Density @ 20 oC:|
|Neutrons in most abundant isotope:||175|
|Electron shells:||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 4|
|Electron configuration:||[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2|
|Specific heat capacity||–|
|Heat of fusion||–|
|Heat of atomization||–|
|Heat of vaporization||–|
|1st ionization energy||–|
|2nd ionization energy||–|
|3rd ionization energy||–|
|Minimum oxidation number||–|
|Min. common oxidation no.||–|
|Maximum oxidation number||–|
|Max. common oxidation no.||–|
|Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)||–|
|Reaction with air||–|
|Reaction with 15 M HNO3||–|
|Reaction with 6 M HCl||–|
|Reaction with 6 M NaOH||–|
|Ionic radius (1+ ion)||–|
|Ionic radius (2+ ion)||–|
|Ionic radius (3+ ion)||–|
|Ionic radius (1- ion)||–|
|Ionic radius (2- ion)||–|
|Ionic radius (3- ion)||–|
Discovery of Flerovium / Ununquadium
Element 114, flerovium, was first made in Dubna, Russia in 1998.
The work was a collaboration between science teams at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California led by Yuri Oganessian and Ken Moody.
Subsequently the team made element 114 on a number of occasions; cumulatively this provided enough evidence for IUPAC to announce in June 2011 its acceptance of element 114’s discovery. (1)
Calcium ions were formed into a beam in the U400 cyclotron (a particle accelerator) at Dubna, accelerating to reach 10% of the speed of light before hitting the plutonium target.
The experiment was run for 6 months. In the first 40 days, 5 x 1018 calcium ions were fired at the plutonium, resulting in the formation of a single atom of flerovium-289, which existed for 30.4 seconds before decaying. (2)
Later, two atoms of flerovium-288 were made, allowing an approximate half-life of 2 seconds to be estimated for this isotope. (3)
As a result of its position in Group 14 of the periodic table we might expect flerovium to be one of the ‘other metals’ with properties similar to lead with possible oxidation states of +2 and +4. Too little flerovium has been synthesized for its properties to be assessed with certainty.
Element 114’s electron configuration is [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2. As a result of relativistic effects, element 114 has three outer p orbitals with different symmetries: p1/2 (m=1/2), p3/2 (m=1/2), p3/2 (m=3/2). (In lighter elements the three p orbitals px, py, pz are symmetrical.)
So, how does the filled 7p1/2 subshell influence the chemical properties of flerovium? Significant spin-orbit splitting between the spherical 7p1/2 and distorted 7p3/2 orbitals meant estimates ranged from chemical inertness (a solid version of noble gas behavior) to lead-like behavior. Initial results indicate ununquadium may exhibit noble gas-like behavior. (4)
Ununquadium (Uuq) was element 114’s temporary name until an official name was chosen by IUPAC. IUPAC has now recommended that element 114 should be named flerovium. Although this name has not yet been given final approval, there is little doubt that this will be the name chosen for element 114.
The name flerovium is in accordance with the wishes of the deputy director of Russia’s Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) who wanted element 114’s name to be derived from Flerov, in honor of George Flerov, the Russian nuclear physicist. (5)
The joint teams at JINR in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore in California have published evidence for the synthesis of elements 113, 114, 115, 116, 117 and 118.
IUPAC has accepted the discoveries of element 114 (flerovium/ununquadium) and element 116 (livermorium/ununhexium). It has not yet considered the evidence for the discovery of element 117 (ununseptium).
UPDATE: The discovery of elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 was formally accepted on December 30, 2015 by IUPAC and IUPAP, completing the seventh row of the periodic table.
Appearance and Characteristics
Flerovium / Ununquadium is harmful due to its radioactivity.
Flerovium / Ununquadium is a synthetic radioactive metal and has only been produced in minute amounts.
Uses of Flerovium
Flerovium is of research interest only.
Abundance and Isotopes
Abundance earth’s crust: nil
Abundance solar system: parts per trillion by weight, parts per trillion by moles
Cost, pure: $ per 100g
Cost, bulk: $ per 100g
Source: Flerovium / Ununquadium is a synthetic radioactive metal, created via nuclear bombardment, and has only been produced in minute amounts. Flerovium is produced by bombarding 244Pu with 48Ca in a heavy ion accelerator.
Isotopes: Flerovium has 5 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers from 285 to 289. None are stable. The most stable isotope is 289Fl, with a half-life of 2.6 seconds.
1. Robert Barber, Paul Karol, Hiromichi Nakahara, Emanuele Vardaci, and Erich Vogt, Discovery of the elements with atomic numbers greater than or equal to 113,. 2011, IUPAC. (pdf download)
2. John Emsley, Nature’s building blocks: an A-Z guide to the elements., Oxford University Press, 2003, p467.
3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Element 114 – Superheavy Element Puts LLNL on the Periodic Table, January 24, 2007.
4. H.W. Gäggeler and A. Türler, Gas Phase Chemistry of Superheavy elements (pdf document)., (2007).
5. New chemical elements synthesized by Russian team recognized., June 3, 2011, RIA Novosti.
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