Livermorium / Ununhexium Element Facts

Livermorium / Ununhexium Radioactive

Livermorium / Ununhexium is radioactive.


Data Zone

Classification: Livermorium is an ‘other metal’ (presumed)
Atomic weight: (293), no stable isotopes
State: solid (presumed)
Melting point:
Boiling point:
Electrons: 116
Protons: 116
Neutrons in most abundant isotope: 177
Electron shells: 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 6
Electron configuration: [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4
Density @ 20oC:
Show more, including: Heats, Energies, Oxidation, Reactions, Compounds, Radii, Conductivities
Atomic volume:
Specific heat capacity
Heat of fusion
Heat of atomization
Heat of vaporization
1st ionization energy
2nd ionization energy
3rd ionization energy
Electron affinity
Minimum oxidation number
Min. common oxidation no.
Maximum oxidation number
Max. common oxidation no.
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)
Polarizability volume
Reaction with air
Reaction with 15 M HNO3
Reaction with 6 M HCl
Reaction with 6 M NaOH
Atomic radius
Ionic radius (1+ ion)
Ionic radius (2+ ion)
Ionic radius (3+ ion)
Ionic radius (1- ion)
Ionic radius (2- ion)
Ionic radius (3- ion)
Thermal conductivity
Electrical conductivity
Freezing/Melting point:

The cyclotron at Dubna

The heavy ion cyclotron U-400 in Dubna, where livermorium was synthesized. Image by Jim Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Discovery of Livermorium / Ununhexium

Dr. Doug Stewart

Element 116, livermorium, was first made in Dubna, Russia in July 2000. The work was a collaboration between science teams at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California led by Yuri Oganessian and Ken Moody.

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) reviewed the work over a period of years and in 2011 finally accepted the discovery of ununhexium, as it was called at the time. (1)

The reaction was a fusion of element 20 with element 96: calcium-48 with curium-248. Calcium ions were formed into a beam in a cyclotron (a particle accelerator) and fired at a curium target.

In the first instance a single atom of livermorium-292 was detected. It existed for 46.9 ms before undergoing alpha-decay to flerovium-288. (1)

In an experiment that lasted a year, two further atoms of livermorium-292 were made. The first existed for 125.5 ms and the second for 55.0 ms. By the end of the experiment a total of 2.3 x 1019 calcium ions had been fired at the curium target. (2) By 2005, 30 atoms of livermorium had been made.

As a result of its position in Group 16 of the periodic table, livermorium is expected to be classed as one of the ‘other metals’ and/or to have similar properties to the metalloid polonium. Too little of the element has been synthesized for this to be confirmed.

Ununhexium (Uuh) was element 116’s temporary name until an official name was chosen by IUPAC. In 2012, IUPAC approved that element 116 should be named livermorium with the symbol Lv.

The deputy director of Russia’s Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) initially wanted element 116’s name to be derived from Muscovy, in honor of the Moscow region. (3) Subsequently, the name livermorium was chosen to honor the work carried out by the scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California in the discovery of the superheavy elements.

IUPAC has accepted the discoveries of element 113 (nihonium/ununtrium), element 114 (flerovium/ununquadium), element 115 (moscovium/ununpentium), element 116 (livermorium/ununhexium), element 117 (tennessine/ununseptium) and element 118 (oganesson/ununoctium), thus completing the seventh row of the periodic table.

Appearance and Characteristics

Harmful effects:

Livermorium is harmful due to its radioactivity.


Livermorium / Ununhexium is a synthetic radioactive metal and has only been produced in minute amounts.

Uses of Livermorium

Livermorium / Ununhexium is of research interest only.

Abundance and Isotopes

Abundance earth’s crust: nil

Abundance solar system: parts per trillion by weight, parts per trillion by moles

Cost, pure: $ per 100g

Cost, bulk: $ per 100g

Source: Livermorium/Ununhexium is a synthetic radioactive metal, created via nuclear bombardment, and has only been produced in minute amounts. Livermorium is produced by bombarding 248Cm with 48Ca.

Isotopes: Livermorium has 4 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers from 290 to 293. None are stable. The most stable isotope is 293Lv, with a half-life of about 61 milliseconds.


1. Robert Barber, Paul Karol, Hiromichi Nakahara, Emanuele Vardaci, and Erich Vogt, Discovery of the elements with atomic numbers greater than or equal to 113,. 2011, IUPAC. (pdf download)
2. J. B. Patin et al., Confirmed results of the 248Cm(48Ca,4n)292116 experiment., November 19, 2003. (pdf download)
3. New chemical elements synthesized by Russian team recognized., June 3, 2011, RIA Novosti.

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