Lawrencium Element Facts


Lawrencium was named after Ernest Lawrence

Lawrencium was named after Ernest Lawrence (right). Lawrence won the Nobel prize for inventing the cyclotron particle accelerator, used in the discovery of a number of the synthetic elements. Image Ref.(3)

103
Lr
(262)

Data Zone

Classification: Lawrencium is an actinide metal
Color:
Atomic weight: (262), no stable isotopes
State: solid (presumed)
Melting point:
Boiling point:
Electrons: 103
Protons: 103
Neutrons in most abundant isotope: 159
Electron shells: 2,8,18,32,32,9,2
Electron configuration: [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2
Density @ 20oC:
Show more, including: Heats, Energies, Oxidation, Reactions, Compounds, Radii, Conductivities
Atomic volume:
Structure:
Hardness:
Specific heat capacity
Heat of fusion
Heat of atomization -
Heat of vaporization
1st ionization energy 470 kJ mol-1
2nd ionization energy
3rd ionization energy
Electron affinity
Minimum oxidation number 0
Min. common oxidation no. 0
Maximum oxidation number 3
Max. common oxidation no. 3
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale)
Polarizability volume -
Reaction with air
Reaction with 15 M HNO3
Reaction with 6 M HCl
Reaction with 6 M NaOH
Oxide(s)
Hydride(s)
Chloride(s)
Atomic radius
Ionic radius (1+ ion)
Ionic radius (2+ ion) 88.6 pm
Ionic radius (3+ ion)
Ionic radius (1- ion)
Ionic radius (2- ion)
Ionic radius (3- ion)
Thermal conductivity
Electrical conductivity
Freezing/Melting point:



Discovery of Lawrencium

Lawrencium was synthesized in 1961 by Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh and Robert Latimer at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California. It was the last member of the actinide series to be discovered.

A heavy-ion linear accelerator (HILAC) was used to bombard a 3 milligram target of californium (consisting of a mixture of californium isotopes of mass number 249, 250, 251, and 252) with boron-10 and boron-11 ions, producing lawrencium. (1), (2)

The target consisted of a mixture of californium isotopes and therefore an exact mass of the new element could not be assigned. Later research suggested that lawrencium-258 (half-life 4.2 seconds) was produced in the 1961 experiment. (2)

The element was named after Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron particle accelerator.

The symbol Lw was used originally, but in 1963 this was changed by The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) to Lr.

Transuranium elements discovery and experiments. 1963 chemistry educational documentary narrated by Glenn Seaborg, Stanley Thompson and Albert Ghiorso.

Gammasphere

The Gammasphere at Argonne National Laboratory. Analysis of gamma rays generated in experiments in the Gammasphere established that very heavy nuclei like lawrencium are not shaped like spheres, but are actually elongated like footballs. The 10-foot-tall, 14-ton device has 110 germanium detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen.

Appearance and Characteristics

Harmful effects:

Lawrencium is harmful due to its radioactivity.

Characteristics:
Lawrencium is a synthetic, highly radioactive metal that has only been produced in miniscule amounts.

Lawrencium is a trivalent ion in aqueous solution. (2a)

Lawrencium metal has not been prepared. (2b)

All of its isotopes are short-lived. Its longest lived isotopes is 262Lr with a half-life of 216 minutes.

Uses of Lawrencium

Lawrencium is of scientific research interest only.

Abundance and Isotopes

Abundance earth’s crust: nil

Abundance solar system: -

Cost, pure: $ per g

Cost, bulk: per 100g

Source: Lawrencium is a synthetic element and is not found naturally. Lawrencium is created by nuclear bombardment, and has only been produced in miniscule amounts. Lawrencium-256 can be produced by the irradiation of a californium-249 target with boron-11 ions. Lawrencium-260 can be produced by the irradiation of a berkelium-249 target with oxygen-18 ions. (2c)

Isotopes: Lawrencium has 10 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 253 to 262. Lawrencium has no naturally occurring isotopes. Its longest lived isotopes are 262Lr with a half-life of 216 minutes, 261Lr, with a half-life of 39 minutes and 260Lr with a half-life of 180 seconds.

References

1. John Emsley, Nature’s building blocks: an A-Z guide to the elements., Oxford University Press, 2003., p460.
2. Robert J. Silva, The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements., Springer., Vol 3.13, p1641-p1642.
2a. Robert J. Silva, The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements., Springer., Vol 3.13, 1645.
2b. Robert J. Silva, The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements., Springer., Vol 3.13, p1644.
2c. Robert J. Silva, The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements., Springer., Vol 3.13, p1642.
3. Image LBL.

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